Cubism is an early twentieth century school of painting and sculpture in which the subject matter is portrayed by geometrical forms without realistic detail. That makes it mystic and difficult to analyze and define their ambiguous meaning. During that period, Jacques Riviere is one of a few cubism critics who profoundly know and understand cubism. Especially, he is able to interpret it in words which are easily comprehensible to the other. He does not only conveys the cubists’ concepts but the mistakes of their works as well.
The essence of the cubists is to portray what objects really are instead of images which normal people see. Consequently, the images look distort from the original shape. Riviere analyzes the cubism transformation concepts in two functions including eliminating lighting and perspective. The cubists replace all these qualities by plastic values. They believe that lighting effects change the true senses of things. They reject the concept and nature of lighting and substitute to the equal and subtle distribution. The shade that normally place on some parts of object, are dispensed into a small portion to every part of object by placing it near the edge of surface, in order to divide and mark successive inclination of the parts of object. Therefore, the geometrical forms benefit them to unleash from the lighting rule. The advantage of this procedure is the unity and the separation function simultaneously. If you need to write an essay on cubism, experts from this Writing service will help you anytime.
Perspective is another thing that cubists remove because it conceals the true form of an object, as it will change every single time when we move the position. Therefore, the plastic image is used to represent all aspects of the object in only one sight. It sometimes reveals the exaggerate image that normally it is impossible to see at one position. Basically, perspective gives the depth of an object but the cubists think the depth is not only expressed by perspective. Perspective does not indicate depth by itself; instead the outlining profile implies it. The artist manipulates depth by the solid form and subtle object accompaniment. The advantage of this process is to mark the difference and relation between objects.
Then Riviere examines the mistakes of the cubists in several ways. First, from cubism concept, revealing every face of an object by placing side by side that give up its volume. Thus, it makes the image of the object flat like an unfolded map. Second, the cubists eliminate lighting and perspective because they don’t want to unequally value between objects or parts of them. Perspective and lighting suggest the point of interest and the arrangement of the objects and picture, but they reject subordination causes so that their works fall back to the confusion and disorder things. The last, the cubism procedure represent the depth for the only purpose to set apart an object from another. The artist prolongs every direction of object and fills up the space between object by walls. Riviere claims that it useless and does away from their aims by the effects. Yet, it messes up their works and makes their works doubtful.
The cubists found a new principle by taking away of individual object meaning, in order to share the equal value to all together or the unity. They leave out the volume of the object to erase its component. And they represent solid forms instead of the depth by which separate an object to another. However, Riviere thinks that from the cubism rules make their works look
nonsensical and confusing.
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